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Discussion Starter · #1 ·
My VP44 injection pump finally put both feet in the grave, and my CTD was in dire need of a new unit. I was experiencing all the common symptoms of a bad injection pump: 0216 DTC (and associated codes), horrific dead pedal issues, very poor performance and economy, etc. I also had a small leak between the vacuum pump and steering pump. Some of the symptoms I experienced as a result of this leak were poor power steering performance and a fading feeling to the power brake pedal. While I was in the process of swapping in a new VP44, I decided I would also remove the vacuum pump / power steering pump assembly, do a bench tear down, and replace all the seals.

There is a really good existing 5 part video series that walks you through the removal and installation of the VP44 injection pump:
I watched all the videos to make sure I knew what to expect for the pump removal and installation. The video series is very detailed and easy to follow. I highly recommend it. Rather than try to post a whole new set of instructions for the VP44 removal / installation, I'm simply going to document some reference pictures, as well as the little tricks I used that helped me through the install. I'll periodically make reference to the video as I go through the process. As for the vacuum and steering pump, I've noticed that there is comparatively little documentation available on that assembly, so I'll cover that in a bit more detail.

Figure 1: Starting position. Engine compartment as viewed from the driver's side, before anything has been removed.

Figure 2: Air intake horn and heater grid removed. I've placed a rag in the intake opening to keep dirt and debris out of the plenum. The APPS has been unbolted and placed to the side of the engine bay. I've placed a rag over the air intake pipe and used blue painters tape to hold it down so it will not come loose. I've also removed the wiring harness from the VP44 pump. I placed a bit of blue painters tape over the front of the harness to keep dirt and debris out of the connector points.

Figure 3: The hard fuel lines to cylinders 1,2, and 4 have been removed as a single unit. Use a 19mm wrench to loosen and remove the lines from the back of the pump and the head. Remove the 10mm bolts that attach the hold downs to the manifold. DO NOT take off the blue tube clamps that hold lines 1,2, and 4 together.

Figure 4: Here the VP44 injection pump has been removed. Detach the three remaining fuel lines from the rear of the injection pump. Remove the 4 bolts that connect the VP44 to the engine. The video recommends you use a long and short 3/8" drive extension piggybacked together to get to the two back bolts. I've found that adding a universal (aka wobbler) on the end of the piggybacked extensions is very helpful, since there is a degree of misalignment with just the straight extensions. You must remove the oil breather and catch can tube from the front of the engine in order to have access to the front of the VP44. Please note that it is NOT necessary to remove the front cover plate to press out the VP44. It is very important to index the pump shaft so the key is facing up in the TDC position. A 15/16" socket on the alternator can be used to bar the engine over so the VP44 shaft and key are indexed correctly to TDC (all this is covered in detail in the VP44 video series).

A steering wheel puller works just fine to press out the VP44 (which is what I used). It is NOT necessary to have a specialty gear puller to remove the VP44. However, if you would like to purchase the specific VP44 puller, here is link to the Snap-On part: SNap-On SP504 Gear Puller. The bolts required to attach the puller to the internal injection pump gear are M8 - 1.25 metric thread. 60mm length M8-1.25 bolts work very well for this. To press the pump out, simply tighten the bolts in a slow, even manner. There will be an audible sound when the pump has been pressed from the gear. You should then be able to gently pry the VP44 pump out and away from the engine.


Figure 5: Here is a closeup of the vacuum / steering pump assembly in place, prior to removal. Note the evidence of oil seepage around the power steering pump shaft where it mates to the vacuum pump. This is the most common point for a leak to occur, and is usually due to a failed spring seal. As indicated in the VP44 video series, now is the absolute best time to replace the camshaft position sensor. Even though my CTD has relatively low mileage, I replaced the sensor while I had everything removed. Good practice, IMHO.

Figure 6: The vacuum / power steering pump has been removed as a single unit (the openings for the VP44 (top hole) and vacuum / steering pump (bottom hole) are now vacant). Before removing the pump assembly, you must remove the three hoses that connect to the power steering pump. One hose is connected with an 18mm fitting, and the other two hoses are held on by clamps. Use a razor blade to slice the ends of the hoses held in place with the clamps, to aid in their removal (simply cut off the sliced ends when you reinstall the hoses). Prior to removing any of the power steering hoses, place a tarp on the ground under the engine. Power steering fluid will leak out, I don't care how careful you are. There are three bolts that must be removed in order to remove the vacuum / power steering pump assembly. Two bolts connect the vacuum pump to the engine (I left the bolts in place for reference), and there is a support bracket attached to the power steering pump that must also be removed. The vacuum / power steering pump should then be able to be easily removed as a single unit from the engine.

Figure 7: Vacuum / Power steering pump unit removed, prior to bench tear down. Part A is the vacuum pump, Part B the coupler, and Part C the power steering pump.

Figure 8: Here is an exploded view of the vacuum pump and coupler assembly, with all the old seals removed, and the parts cleaned. Part A is the actual vacuum pump, which contains the rotary vanes. It uses oil from the engine to engage the vanes and create a vacuum. The gear on the vacuum pump meshes with the camshaft gear. It has no timing value, so there is no indexing to be aware of when you reinstall the pump. Note the two drive dogs on the end of the vacuum pump drive shaft. Part B is the coupler that mates the vacuum pump to the power steering pump. Part B1 sits inside Part B, and couples the drive dogs on the vacuum pump shaft to the drive dogs on the power steering pump shaft. Part B2 is the retainer that also goes inside Part B. Part B2 contains the spring seal which seals the drive shaft of the power steering pump. As stated earlier, a failed spring seal is the most common culprit for leaks. A socket with a 1" OD can be used to press Parts B1 and B2 out of Part B.

Figure 9: Here is a closeup of the coupler (Part B ) with the drive dog coupler (Part B1) and the retainer (Part B2) pressed into place. This provides a good view of the spring seal (which has now been replaced). The drive shaft of the power steering pump is lubricated by oil from the oil feed line, which is subsequently connected to the engine block. There are no bearings. The spring seal is the only thing that keeps the pressurized oil from leaking around the power steering pump shaft, so it's a very important seal.

When reassembling Part B (coupler), it is CRITICAL that you place Part B1 (drive dog coupler) back into Part B, prior to pressing part B2 (retainer) back in. Otherwise, there will be no way for the vacuum pump shaft to turn the power steering pump shaft, and you will be left without power steering and power brakes. When pressing out the old spring seal, you can use a 1 1/4" OD socket. The flat side of a 1 7/16" OD socket can be used to press in the new spring seal, and the flat side of a 1 7/8" OD socket can then be used to press Part B2 (retainer) back into Part B (coupler).

Figure 10: The vacuum pump (Part A) and coupler (Part B ) cleaned and reassembled, complete with new seals. It is very important to slowly, evenly, tighten the two bolts that hold the coupler and vacuum pump together. Torque the bolts to 22 ft/lbs. Ensure that the vacuum pump gear spins freely after the bolts have been torqued. Please note that the gear may be slightly tight because of the new spring seal, but should easily be able to be rotated by hand.

Figure 11: Vacuum / steering pump assembly after bench tear down, fully reassembled with new seals.

Figure 12: Vacuum / steering pump assembly reinstalled, with all hoses reconnected. Don't forget to reinstall the support bracket that attaches from the power steering pump to the engine block. Failing to do so will lead to premature seal failure, and possible stress cracks in the connector between the vacuum and power steering pump.


Figure 12: New VP44 injection pump installed, and all fuel lines reconnected. Again, I found it useful to use a universal (aka wobbler) on the end of the piggybacked 3/8" drive extensions to reinstall the two rear bolts for the VP44 (refer to the VP44 videos for specific installation steps). I have a FASS HD150 pump on my truck. Note the tapped banjo bolt where the blue FASS fuel line connects to the supply inlet on the VP44. This is where I have my mechanical fuel pressure gauge connected to an isolator. I elect to take fuel pressure readings directly from the VP44 fuel inlet, because this seems to be the most logical point for accurate readings. I've never had any issues with the banjo bolt or tapped fitting restricting fuel flow; my pressure gauge consistently reads 20+ psi at the pump inlet.

Figure 13: Here are a series of pictures showing the fuel pressure line connected to the tapped banjo bolt, and then connected to the mechanical pressure isolator. I mounted the pressure isolator to the top of the drivers side fender, next to the power distribution center (PDC). It's a tight fit, but there is room. The mechanical fuel pressure isolator is filled with antifreeze (the green liquid in the clear pressure line on the gauge side), to accurately convey pressure readings to the DiPricol fuel pressure gauge on the A Pillar.

Figure 14: After reinspecting all my work and triple checking everything, I was ready to start the truck. I followed the fuel line bleeding process as described in the VP44 videos. After the lines were bled, I bumped the engine and let the FASS pump build up pressure in the VP44. It took about 4 separate attempts of turning the engine over for about 10 seconds each, for it to finally start. The engine idled rough (like a bad lope tune) for about 15 seconds as the residual air cleared out of the fuel lines. After that, the idle became smooth and steady. I kept a close eye on the pressure the entire time of the restart process to make sure the VP44 had plenty of fuel. The gauge consistently read 20+ psi, and continued to do so from that point forward. There is no documented break in procedure for the VP44 that I am aware of. My recommendation would be to drive ~100 miles with all aftermarket power products off to let the pump settle in. It's then probably safe to slowly phase your power products back in, and eventually tap the pump wire if that is in your plans.

Final Step: After you have completed all the steps above, there is but one thing left to do. Extend your primary arm and hand, grab your favorite frosty beverage, and articulate your arm thus placing opening of said frosty beverage to your mount. Take a drink. Then extend your other arm and hand, fold over your shoulder, and pat yourself on your back. Repeat both steps until desired outcome is achieved. :dance:

Summary: Replacing the VP44 pump, and servicing the vacuum / steering pump is not that difficult. It simply takes time and patience. I would recommend that you budget a full day to take care of both the VP44 and vacuum / steering pump. Yes it can be done faster, but why rush. Cooler heads prevail, and make for better running vehicles. I hope you found this helpful.
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