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Old 10-23-2008, 05:55 PM   #1 (permalink)
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Diesel Additives - study done by Diesel Place..

I found this on Diesel place web site - I believe it is a Ford Powerstroke website - while doing some research on diesel additives. I found this couple of months ago and got around to reading it just now. The study was done by an independent agency and pretty unbiased. What are your thoughts? I am using Power Service DieselKleen which is at the very bottom of the ranking. Just wondering if anyone else have used any of the other additives.. If so please share your experiences..

BTW, if you want to go directly to the rankings, scroll to the very bottom...

The following are the preliminary results of a research study on diesel fuel Lubricity Additives. There is likely to be further commentary and explanation added at a future time.

PURPOSE:

The purpose of this research was to determine the ability of multiple diesel fuel additives to replace the vital lubricity component in ULSD (Ultra Low Sulfer Diesel) fuel.

HISTORY:

ULSD fuel is the fuel currently mandated for use in all on road diesel engines. This fuel burns cleaner and is less polluting than it’s predecessor, called Low Sulfer Diesel Fuel. Low sulfer fuel contained less than 500 ppm of sulfer. ULSD contains 15 ppm or less.
As diesel fuel is further refined to remove the polluting sulfer, it is inadvertently stripped of its lubricating properties. This vital lubrication is a necessary component of the diesel fuel as it prevents wear in the fuel delivery system. Specifically, it lubricates pumps, high pressure pumps and injectors. Traditional Low sulfer diesel fuel typically contained enough lubricating ability to suffice the needs of these vital components. ULSD fuel, on the other hand, is considered to be very “dry” and incapable of lubricating vital fuel delivery components. As a result, these components are at risk of premature and even catastrophic failure when ULSD fuel is introduced to the system. As a result, all oil companies producing ULSD fuel must replace the lost lubricity with additives. All ULSD fuel purchased at retail fuel stations SHOULD be adequately treated with additives to replace this lost lubricity. The potential result of using inadequately treated fuel, as indicated above, can be catastrophic. There have been many documented cases of randomly tested samples of diesel fuel. These tests prove that often times the fuel we purchase is not adequately treated and may therefore contribute to accelerated wear of our fuel delivery systems. For this reason it may be prudent to use an after market diesel fuel additive to ENSURE adequate lubrication of the fuel delivery system. Additionally, many additives can offer added benefits such as cetane improver, and water separators or emulsifiers.

CONTENT:

In this study we will test multiple diesel fuel additives designed to replace lost lubricity. The primary component of this study is a side-by-side laboratory analysis of each additive’s ability to replace this vital lubricity. Additionally, claims of improving cetane, water separation or emulsification, bio-diesel compatibility and alcohol content will be noted. These notes were derived from information that was readily available to consumers (via the label and internet information) and none of this information has been evaluated for validity and/or performance. Cetane information has only been noted if the word “cetane” was used in the advertising information. The words “improves power” has not been translated to mean “improves cetane” in this evaluation. Information on alcohol content is provided by indicating “contains no alcohol”. Omission of the words “contains no alcohol” does not imply that it does contain alcohol. This information was simply missing in the information available to a consumer. However, the possibility of a form of alcohol in these products is possible. Additionally, information on dosages and cost per tankful are included for comparison purposes.

How Diesel Fuel Is Evaluated For Lubricating Ability:

Diesel fuel and other fluids are tested for lubricating ability using a device called a “High Frequency Reciprocating Rig” or HFRR. The HFRR is currently the Internationally accepted, standardized method to evaluate fluids for lubricating ability. It uses a ball bearing that reciprocates or moves back and forth on a metal surface at a very high frequency for a duration of 90 minutes. The machine does this while the ball bearing and metal surface are immersed in the test fluid (in this case, treated diesel fuel). At the end of the test the ball bearing is examined under a microscope and the “wear scar” on the ball bearing is measured in microns. The larger the wear scar, the poorer the lubricating ability of the fluid. Southwest Research runs every sample twice and averages the size of the wear scar.
The U.S. standard for diesel fuel says a commercially available diesel fuel should produce a wear scar of no greater than 520 microns. The Engine Manufacturers Association had requested a standard of a wear scar no greater than 460 microns, typical of the pre-ULSD fuels. Most experts agree that a 520 micron standard is adequate, but also that the lower the wear scar the better.

METHOD:

An independent research firm in Texas was hired to do the laboratory work. The cost of the research was paid for voluntarily by the participating additive manufacturers. Declining to participate and pay for the research were the following companies: Amsoil and Power Service. Because these are popular products it was determined that they needed to be included in the study. These products were tested using funds collected by diesel enthusiasts at “dieselplace.com”. Additionally, unconventional additives such as 2-cycle oil and used motor oil were tested for their abilities to aid in diesel fuel lubricity. These were also paid for by members of “dieselplace.com”.
The study was conducted in the following manner:
-The Research firm obtained a quantity of “untreated” ULSD fuel from a supplier. This fuel was basic ULSD fuel intended for use in diesel engines. However, this sample was acquired PRIOR to any attempt to additize the fuel for the purpose of replacing lost lubricity. In other words, it was a “worst case scenario, very dry diesel fuel” that would likely cause damage to any fuel delivery system. This fuel was tested using the HFRR at the Southwest Research Laboratory. This fuel was determined to have a very high HFRR score of 636 microns, typical of an untreated ULSD fuel. It was determined that this batch of fuel would be utilized as the baseline fuel for testing all of the additives. The baseline fuel HFRR score of 636 would be used as the control sample. All additives tested would be evaluated on their ability to replace lost lubricity to the fuel by comparing their scores to the control sample. Any score under 636 shows improvement to the fuels ability to lubricate the fuel delivery system of a diesel engine.

BLIND STUDY:

In order to ensure a completely unbiased approach to the study, the following steps were taken:
Each additive tested was obtained independently via internet or over the counter purchases. The only exceptions were Opti-Lube XPD and the bio-diesel sample. The reason for this is because Opti-Lube XPD additive was considered “experimental” at the time of test enrollment and was not yet on the market. It was sent directly from Opti-Lube company. The bio-diesel sample was sponsored by Renewable Energy Group. One of their suppliers, E.H. Wolf and Sons in Slinger, Wisconsin supplied us with a sample of 100% soybean based bio-diesel. This sample was used to blend with the baseline fuel to create a 2% bio-diesel for testing.
Each additive was bottled separately in identical glass containers. The bottles were labeled only with a number. This number corresponded to the additive contained in the bottle. The order of numbering was done randomly by drawing names out of a hat. Only Spicer Research held the key to the additives in each bottle.
The additive samples were then sent in a box to An independent research firm. The only information given them was the ratio of fuel to be added to each additive sample. For example, bottle “A” needs to be mixed at a ratio of “480-1”. The ratio used for each additive was the “prescribed dosage” found on the bottle label for that product. Used motor oil and 2-cycle oil were tested at a rationally chosen ratio of 200:1.
The Research Laboratory mixed the proper ratio of each “bottled fluid” into a separate container containing the baseline fuel. The data, therefore, is meaningful because every additive is tested in the same way using the same fuel. A side-by-side comparison of the effectiveness of each additive is now obtainable.

THE RESULTS:

These results are listed in the order of performance in the HFRR test. The baseline fuel used in every test started at an HFRR score of 636. The score shown is the tested HFRR score of the baseline fuel/additive blend.
Also included is the wear scar improvement provided by the additive as well as other claimed benefits of the additive. Each additive is also categorized as a Multi-purpose additive, Multi-purpose + anti-gel, Lubricity only, non-conventional, or as an additive capable of treating both gasoline and diesel fuel.
As a convenience to the reader there is also information on price per treated tank of diesel fuel (using a 26 gallon tank), and dosage per 26 gallon tank provided as “ounces of additive per 26 gallon tank”.

In Order Of Performance:

1) 2% REG SoyPower biodiesel
HFRR 221, 415 micron improvement.
50:1 ratio of baseline fuel to 100% biodiesel
66.56 oz. of 100% biodiesel per 26 gallons of diesel fuel
Price: market value

2)Opti-Lube XPD
Multi-purpose + anti-gel
cetane improver, demulsifier
HFRR 317, 319 micron improvement.
256:1 ratio
13 oz/tank
$4.35/tank

3)FPPF RV, Bus, SUV Diesel/Gas fuel treatment
Gas and Diesel
cetane improver, emulsifier
HFRR 439, 197 micron improvement
640:1 ratio
5.2 oz/tank
$2.60/tank

4)Opti-Lube Summer Blend
Multi-purpose
demulsifier
HFRR 447, 189 micron improvement
3000:1 ratio
1.11 oz/tank
$0.68/tank

5)Opti-Lube Winter Blend
Muti-purpose + anti-gel
cetane improver
HFRR 461, 175 micron improvement
512:1 ratio
6.5 oz/tank
$3.65/tank

6)Schaeffer Diesel Treat 2000
Multi-purpose + anti-gel
cetane improver, emulsifier, bio-diesel compatible
HFRR 470, 166 micron improvement
1000:1 ratio
3.32 oz/tank
$1.87/tank

7)Super Tech Outboard 2-cycle TC-W3 engine oil
Unconventional (Not ULSD compliant, may damage 2007 or newer systems)
HFRR 474, 162 micron improvement
200:1 ratio
16.64 oz/tank
$1.09/tank

8)Stanadyne Lubricity Formula
Lubricity Only
demulsifier, 5% bio-diesel compatible, alcohol free
HFRR 479, 157 micron improvement
1000:1 ratio
3.32 oz/tank
$1.00/tank

9)Amsoil Diesel Concentrate
Multi-purpose
demulsifier, bio-diesel compatible, alcohol free
HFRR 488, 148 micron improvement
640:1 ratio
5.2 oz/tank
$2.16/tank

10)Power Service Diesel Kleen + Cetane Boost
Multi-purpose
Cetane improver, bio-diesel compatible, alcohol free
HFRR 575, 61 micron improvement
400:1 ratio
8.32 oz/tank
$1.58/tank

11)Howe’s Meaner Power Kleaner
Multi-purpose
Alcohol free
HFRR 586, 50 micron improvement
1000:1 ratio
3.32 oz/tank
$1.36/tank

12)Stanadyne Performance Formula
Multi-purpose + anti-gel
cetane improver, demulsifier, 5% bio-diesel compatible, alcohol free
HFRR 603, 33 micron improvement
480:1 ratio
6.9 oz/tank
$4.35/tank

13)Used Motor Oil, Shell Rotella T 15w40, 5,000 miles used.
Unconventional (Not ULSD compliant, may damage systems)
HFRR 634, 2 micron improvement
200:1 ratio
16.64 oz/tank
price: market value

14)Lucas Upper Cylinder Lubricant
Gas or diesel
HFRR 641, 5 microns worse than baseline (statistically insignificant change)
427:1 ratio
7.8 oz/tank
$2.65/tank

15)B1000 Diesel Fuel Conditioner by Milligan Biotech
Multi-purpose, canola oil based additive
HFRR 644, 8 microns worse than baseline (statistically insignificant change)
1000:1 ratio
3.32 oz/tank
$2.67/tank

16)FPPF Lubricity Plus Fuel Power
Multi-purpose + anti-gel
Emulsifier, alcohol free
HFRR 675, 39 microns worse than baseline fuel
1000:1 ratio
3.32 oz/tank
$1.12/tank

17)Marvel Mystery Oil
Gas, oil and Diesel fuel additive (NOT ULSD compliant, may damage 2007 and newer systems)
HFRR 678, 42 microns worse than baseline fuel.
320:1 ratio
10.4 oz/tank
$3.22/tank

18)ValvTect Diesel Guard Heavy Duty/Marine Diesel Fuel Additive
Multi-purpose
Cetane improver, emulsifier, alcohol free
HFRR 696, 60 microns worse than baseline fuel
1000:1 ratio
3.32 oz/tank
$2.38/tank

19)Primrose Power Blend 2003
Multi-purpose
Cetane boost, bio-diesel compatible, emulsifier
HFRR 711, 75 microns worse than baseline
1066:1 ratio
3.12 oz/tank
$1.39/tank

CONCLUSIONS:

Products 1 through 4 were able to improve the unadditized fuel to an HFRR score of 460 or better. This meets the most strict requirements requested by the Engine Manufacturers Association.
Products 1 through 9 were able to improve the unadditized fuel to an HFRR score of 520 or better, meeting the U.S. diesel fuel requirements for maximum wear scar in a commercially available diesel fuel.
Products 16 through 19 were found to cause the fuel/additive blend to perform worse than the baseline fuel. The cause for this is speculative. This is not unprecedented in HFRR testing and can be caused by alcohol or other components in the additives. Further investigation into the possibilities behind these poor results will investigated.
Any additive testing within +/- 20 microns of the baseline fuel could be considered to have no significant change. The repeatability of this test allows for a +/- 20 micron variability to be considered insignificant.

CREDITS:

This study would not have been possible without the participation of all companies involved and dieselplace.com. A special Thank You to all of the dieselplace.com members who generously donated toward this study and waited longer than they should have for the results. You folks are the best. Arlen Spicer, organizer.
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Old 10-23-2008, 08:29 PM   #2 (permalink)
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The problem with most diesel additives, is that they contain high amounts of solvent. Long term use of additives high in solvent content can result in injector damage from the break down of the lubricating film between the needle and the nozzle.

It's enough of a problem, that new Bosch injectors have added a special C2.1 combi coating to help deal with needle side loading and scuffing caused by the loss of the lubricating film.

Lucas Upper Cylinder Lube and Howes Diesel Treat seem to have little/no added solvents, and may be a better way to go.
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Old 10-23-2008, 10:08 PM   #3 (permalink)
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I wish they had tested the Howes Diesel Treat instead of Howes Meaner Power Kleaner.
Since the objective of the exercise was to find out what the best lubricity additives were, that would have made more sense to me.

Anyway, it was a good effort funded by a lot of diesel enthusiests (the lab had to be paid) and I commend them for stepping up to the plate.
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Old 10-24-2008, 09:48 AM   #4 (permalink)
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I've got the same thing over at my site as well...
HFRR
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Old 10-27-2008, 11:45 AM   #5 (permalink)
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Although that study is an excellent study for it's time and purpose most people take it out of content and use it for construing (either proving or disproving) their intented objective. That study was done when ULSD was first introduced and no standards were in place. Since then alot of research, time, and money has been spent developing a ULSD that meets mandated standards. Additives are put back into the ULSD for lubricity at the terminals.

Keep in mind the study in this thread was done on none additized ULSD.

2003 to present day CR Dodge Cummins engines do not need any additive for lubricity purposes other than what's already in the fuel at the pumps.

Yes, solvents are hard on moving parts and that's what most of the additives in that study have in them.

I've said it before and I'll say it again. The only additive a 2003 to present day Dodge Cummins CR would need is anti-gel for cold weather operation. You can buy straight anti-gel from NAPA.
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Old 10-28-2008, 12:48 PM   #6 (permalink)
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I was at a diesel only repair and parts shop the other day picking up some Baldwin fuel filters (5 micron fuel filter that only costs $9!), and the only fuel additive they sell is Lucas Upper Cylinder Lube. They had a bottle of PS laying around, poured some in my hand, then poured the Lucas in the other and asked me to rub each between my fingers.

The PS felt no more lubricating than water and had a strong chemical solvent smell, while the Lucas felt like a light lubricating oil and didn't have any solvent smell. One of the shop techs said that you wouldn't put oil in your truck that had the consistency of water, so why would you use a fuel system lube that doesn't feel like it has any lubricating properties and smells like solvent?
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Old 10-28-2008, 01:15 PM   #7 (permalink)
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I know of several Dodge diesel trucks that the County has that have never seen additives of any kind and they have lasted for many years and are still running. The fuel I buy in the winter is winterized to -30 below with additives from the refinery so I have no need to add more. Though I do use some additives for water a few times ayear just to be on the safe side. The only additive I will use is Lucas because it does not have solvents in it and I can use it in my truck and wife's car. In fact I use it more in my wife's car then I do my truck as today gas leaves junk on/in the injectors to where I have to use it at least 2 times a month to clean them to restore fuel mileage.
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Old 10-28-2008, 01:55 PM   #8 (permalink)
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Well it looks like the Lucas stuff may be the only one without solvents. Just found this on the Howes Diesel Treat:



ChemicalIdentityConcentrationCAS #LD50LC50(V/V)(SpeciesAnd Route )--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
S64742-01-4HydrotreatedPetroleum Distillate15 to40%64742-47-8Rat- OralRat->5 g/m3> 5 g/kgHeavyAromaticNaphtha5 to10%64742-94-


Petroleum Distillate- 15-40%

Naptha- 5-10%
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Old 12-25-2008, 11:27 PM   #9 (permalink)
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just bumping this up since its winter time
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Old 12-26-2008, 08:23 AM   #10 (permalink)
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I wish they had of tested the two-cycle oil at the more realistic ratio of 128:1, instead of the 200:1.

It would be interesting to see just how much farther up the ladder it would have gone.
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Old 12-26-2008, 08:51 AM   #11 (permalink)
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Quote:
Originally Posted by pwr2tow View Post
Yes, solvents are hard on moving parts and that's what most of the additives in that study have in them.

I've said it before and I'll say it again. The only additive a 2003 to present day Dodge Cummins CR would need is anti-gel for cold weather operation. You can buy straight anti-gel from NAPA.
I agree with you, I think a lot of the '03+ guys are wasting their money. But it does matter to me and my truck, my truck is ULSD intolerant.

Quote:
Originally Posted by DBLR View Post
I know of several Dodge diesel trucks that the County has that have never seen additives of any kind and they have lasted for many years and are still running.

The only additive I will use is Lucas because it does not have solvents in it and I can use it in my truck and wife's car. In fact I use it more in my wife's car then I do my truck as today gas leaves junk on/in the injectors to where I have to use it at least 2 times a month to clean them to restore fuel mileage.
Yeah, the Cummins itself is lubricated by the oil and will run for a long long time on ULSD, but how many VP-44's have they replaced?

I guess I don't see why everyone is against chemicals here, isn't diesel fuel a chemical?



I'd like to look into the opti-lube, but it looks like prices have gone up quite a bit since that study was done, the XPD stuff is 12.95 a quart and only treats 64 gallons.
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Old 12-26-2008, 09:04 AM   #12 (permalink)
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I'd like to look into the opti-lube, but it looks like prices have gone up quite a bit since that study was done, the XPD stuff is 12.95 a quart and only treats 64 gallons.
yea there XPD does cost alot now but do you really need the XPD probly just get away with summer and winter blends. i am useing there winter blend now and it seems to make my truck run alot smoother then then the 2stroke, power service and howes did
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