d89 and the Heinous H-Pump Hack - Dodge Cummins Diesel Forum
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post #1 of 166 (permalink) Old 02-08-2017, 03:30 PM Thread Starter
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d89 and the Heinous H-Pump Hack

Well gentlemen, it's time for another wacky project.

This next chapter in my truck's development will be the most massive and sophisticated undertaking of my tenure here, easily eclipsing my fuel system build and quite possibly the sum of all my previous contributions. This project may be controversial among the 12v community, and as such, I initially wasn't going to publicly document it. However, the project has evolved well past its original scope and now includes an H1000 injection pump swap. Since this has never been accomplished before, it would be a great disservice to the B-series community to pull it off and keep it to myself.

Scope Creep: Story of my Life

I am a project manager’s worst nightmare.

This started out as basically a homebrew instrumentation system that would display sensor information on a screen and have datalogging capabilities. I have spent a lot of hours tuning my trusty ox, and I have grown tired of the butt dyno and its vulnerability to the placebo effect. I'm a very numbers-oriented person, and my recent project of creating an Arduino-based fan controller with secondary features, such as datalogging, has shown me the usefulness of accurate sensors and the ability to record that data over time. You don’t have to rely on hunches and instincts so much because you have data to prove or disprove your suspicions! It’s great! Plus, according to my wife, datalogging is “sexy.” Yes, she’s a nerd. But, you know what they say. Happy wife, happy life!

I next had the idea to make this datalogger to control certain things in the truck.



I thought it would be silly to have a touchscreen on the pillar and then go on to drill holes in the dash for switches. These would typically be added-on items like my OBA compressor, airbag inflate/deflate, exhaust brake, accessory lighting, etc, but could also interface with the truck in ways like a shutdown timer, manual CAD control, and driving the dash gauges for better accuracy and speedometer correction. It could also allow for “smart” control of certain features. A load-compensating fast idle feature using the stock cruise servo could be added, and that could be operated in conjunction with the exhaust brake to give an automatic, self-canceling warmup mode.

This, of course, led me to the idea to create an electronic fuel control for the P7100.



It wouldn’t take much additional work to mate a stepper motor to the back of the AFC housing which could move the foot with a leadscrew. 3 sensors, already in use by the datalogging side, could supply all the necessary information to automatically define preboost fuel, the boost fueling curve, and max fuel, and would inherently apply automatic altitude and temperature adjustment to all fueling conditions. It would only be one small step further to develop algorithms for derating the engine based on high EGT, drive pressure, coolant temp, RPM, etc. These parameters could be saved and tunes could be selected on the fly.

However, no amount of electromagical AFC mischief would fix the static timing inherent to the P7100, or the quirks of RQV-K governor that start to get teeth and claws as you continue to turn up the power. You may recall that timing is something I’ve been fixated on, basically since I got my truck, and I have had a strong desire to come up with a mechanical timing advance. This is not a new idea by any means. Many have come up with various concepts of mechanical timing advances, and my progress was halted by the same things that have halted everybody else. They would be time-consuming and expensive to develop, with a rather limited market, and a bolt-on kit would be virtually impossible to price reasonably. I was a little disappointed that this project would accomplish so much in the way of fuel control and yet still fail to bring us dynamic timing. I had almost made peace with this, until @cumminsrulez called and we got to talking. Some stuff happened, and I was able to acquire an H1000 injection pump.



I had been casually looking for a few years, but as they are somewhat rare, I never looked very hard. In a nutshell, the H1000 could be described as a stroker P-pump on steroids. The pump uses control sleeves around the plungers instead of fixed barrels, which are moved up and down to change injection timing. The nature of the electronic governor would eliminate all the RQV-K’s quirks and trade-offs that gradually become nuisances and eventually turn into drivability issues as you turn up the power. With complete, programmable control of all basic running functions, injection timing, and fuel rack position, the only tuning and drivability edge a CR would have over this setup is multi-stage injection, and I wouldn’t have any of the CR problems as the fuel metering is still mechanical. That’s a trade I’m okay with.



The final conceptual revision of this project then occurred when I started thinking about how limited the PCM functions are on a 12v. The automatic transmission stuff is pretty basic and went away with the manual swap. Alternator field control went away with the alternator swap, but it would have been very easy to convert to an external regulator. Cruise control and tachometer signal output will have to be transferred to the new computer anyway. That leaves the A/C compressor clutch and grid heater control. Requiring only an additional handful of I/O connections, I decided to set my crackerjack Cummins computer up at the hardware level to absorb the two remaining duties of the stock PCM so I can delete it entirely.



Quick Index

1 - Mockup Jig
2 - H1000 Initial Inspection
3 - Rant: Torx vs. Torx Plus
4 - Fitting the Pump
5 - Quickserve Datamine
6 - Oil Connections
7 - Fuel Connections
8 - Fuel Pump
9 - Analog Circuitry (Not Super Helpful)


'95 2500 ECLB 4x4, 321k and counting.
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Last edited by dauntless89; 04-09-2017 at 06:29 AM. Reason: Added quick index
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post #2 of 166 (permalink) Old 02-08-2017, 03:48 PM Thread Starter
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Mockup Jig

I had some time to kill waiting for the H-pump to arrive. During this time, I did some research and found that while visually similar to a P-pump, the H-pump has very little in common with it. The only directly interchangeable parts are the DV’s, seats, and holders. The mounting ends have very few dimensions in common and the H-pump will require some machine work before it will install on the truck. The shaft end is much larger, meaning the gear’s tapered bore will need to be enlarged and broached for a key. The H-pump is nearly 2” taller than a P7100, most likely necessitating new injection lines and definitely a new air horn.

We first need to make the H-pump fit the hole the P-pump goes into. The easiest way to do this is to make a jig for a P-pump mounting flange. I don’t have an extra P-pump just kicking around my shop. I was able to borrow one, but it’s not one most of you would recognize.



The green pump in this picture is a P-pump off an 8.3 ISC in a John Deere tractor. It has a fully electronic governor, which I believe is referred to as an “EDC” or Electronic Diesel Control. This is the same basic setup as the H-pump uses, just without a timing actuator. The person I borrowed this from compared it to the P7100 that came off his Dodge truck, and said everything on the mounting end was the same. To further verify, I brought it to work and compared it to a P7100 that I am fairly certain came off a 5.9 in a Ford F700 (the 11mm pump in the picture). The mounting ends were dimensionally identical.












Knowing that this borrowed pump was compatible, I set out to make the jig. First, I plas’d a disc out of 1/4” steel plate.



I drilled a hole in the center and used a 5/16" coupling nut in the chuck for a mandrel.


This was super sketchy. I will not use this mandrel setup again.

Then I turned it until the OD was such that my lathe chuck’s outside jaws could grab it.





Since the front bearing housing on the pump pilots the pump into its mounting bore, this was the first feature I needed to replicate. I used a hole saw in the tailstock to remove as much material as possible, then I bored it out until it was a couple thousandths larger than the bearing housing.





With the plate on the pilot, the next step was to transfer the bolt pattern and drill out the mounting holes.





Then, I attached the disc to a piece of angle.



The only remaining task was to mill the top out so the rack plug wouldn’t interfere.



Mockup jig accomplished.

Now, simply add a couple basic tools such as a degree wheel and dial indicator, and your mockup jig is now a test stand!



This, combined with regulated shop air, will be very helpful when it's time to map the internal geometry of the H-pump.

'95 2500 ECLB 4x4, 321k and counting.
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Last edited by dauntless89; 02-08-2017 at 03:50 PM.
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post #3 of 166 (permalink) Old 02-08-2017, 04:27 PM Thread Starter
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H1000 Initial Inspection

Once the H-Pump showed up, I was curious to see what I was actually working with.





The governor plug is a 9-pin Deutsch connector. Easy enough.





The front of the pump has a couple features not present on a P-Pump.





The black plug near the top is the cover for the timing shaft. The rack plug is stamped "2000." The feature near the bottom with the o-ring is an ORB port with a small orifice, almost definitely the factory oil feed port. This will have to be sealed one way or another.



Moving down, we see that the nut and factory spline-drive adapter is in place.



Removing the 41mm nut, I found this spline adapter was not broached for a key. There is also a shaft seal in place on the bearing housing which will probably have to be removed to allow internal drainage.



This pump has an onboard lift pump. My fuel system is good on flow so I will probably delete this and install a block-off plate for now. Though, I may some day reinstall it and plumb it in parallel with the stock LP. I'll see what kind of displacement it has and what the spring is like for possible upgrade potential.



This funny looking gizmo is the factory FSS. It's a 6-way valve actuated by an electromagnet, which the United States Postal Service felt obligated to break despite the excellent packaging provided by the seller.





Looks like it's another Deutsch connector.



The tank connections go on top, the LP connections go on the bottom. Fuel goes into and out of the injection pump through two ORB ports at the valve body/pump interface.





The first picture is the timing actuator cover. The timing sleeves and fuel rack are electromagnetic servos, commonly though incorrectly referred to as "variable-pull solenoids." These can be easily controlled with pulse-width modulation (PWM).



This is the inboard side of the pump. Not much, but there's an adjustment screw under the gold cap in the center. I didn't feel inclined to mess with it.



Though the injection unit bodies are different (these are not shimmed for phasing, the phasing adjustment is done at the control sleeves inside the pump), it does interchange DV holders, valves, and seats with a P7100. This is good because the factory DVs in this pump, known as "constant-pressure DVs" have known issues in both performance and reliability. They will be going away. The stock H1000 DV holders use the standard DV holder socket.

I also took some measurements of the mounting flange to see exactly what was different.



The grey pattern is a P-Pump mounting flange, with the H-Pump mounting flange overlayed. I didn't put dimensions on this one, but basically the pilot diameter on the bearing housing has to be reduced by .315". This will wipe out the o-ring groove, so it will have to be re-cut. The top bolt holes are off-center by about .055" and can easily be elongated to fit. The lower bolt holes are off-center by about .815", but there's plenty of material in the flange casting to drill new holes. Easy enough.

'95 2500 ECLB 4x4, 321k and counting.
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post #4 of 166 (permalink) Old 02-08-2017, 05:22 PM
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Wow I have seen this idea tossed around one time previous but the case differences ended that particular discussion. I am totally looking forward to any and all updates. Keep up the amazing work.

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post #5 of 166 (permalink) Old 02-08-2017, 06:05 PM
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Definitely subbing, and for all the same reasons you stated... There has been HUGE scope creep with my VGT actuator, and more to come (One you haven't seen the necessity for yet is a true proportional brake controller, which gets a signal from the front brakes.. I already have the sensor installed, but haven't done the rest of it)..

Datalogging is a huge benefit!

On the H pump, does it have it's own driver circuit to provide the high power to the servo or do you have to provide the high power to it?

you seem to have a decent machine shop at your disposal, have you thought about reworking the P7100 cover to properly match the H pump? bore out the mounting hole, redrill the (lower) holes for the studs.. Might be easier than doing a lot of fiddling on the pump.. except for the camshaft removal part!.. Top holes I'd probably just file out a little, they seem to be close enough that would be an acceptable solution.

'94 SC 4x4 Dually flatdeck, Ford hubs, Hawk brakes, 3.54 gears NV5600, The standard set of goodies on the NEW engine.. 436hp @2400 RPM 998ft/lb, Lil'bb controlled HE351VGT
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post #6 of 166 (permalink) Old 02-08-2017, 06:09 PM
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One thing I just noticed that is important is that the FSS you pointed out is 24V, and if there are any internal electronics, they may be 24V as well... that includes that actuating mechinism.. which may cause you some (additional) grief.

'94 SC 4x4 Dually flatdeck, Ford hubs, Hawk brakes, 3.54 gears NV5600, The standard set of goodies on the NEW engine.. 436hp @2400 RPM 998ft/lb, Lil'bb controlled HE351VGT
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post #7 of 166 (permalink) Old 02-08-2017, 06:15 PM
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This looks super interesting! What is the original application for the H pump?
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post #8 of 166 (permalink) Old 02-08-2017, 07:47 PM
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This is an great project. Subscribed!

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post #9 of 166 (permalink) Old 02-08-2017, 09:07 PM
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About time!!!! This will be quite the write up. A lot of good stuff to learn here


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post #10 of 166 (permalink) Old 02-09-2017, 06:44 AM Thread Starter
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Rx7man View Post
On the H pump, does it have it's own driver circuit to provide the high power to the servo or do you have to provide the high power to it?

you seem to have a decent machine shop at your disposal, have you thought about reworking the P7100 cover to properly match the H pump? bore out the mounting hole, redrill the (lower) holes for the studs.. Might be easier than doing a lot of fiddling on the pump.. except for the camshaft removal part!.. Top holes I'd probably just file out a little, they seem to be close enough that would be an acceptable solution.
Neither pump has it's own power supply. That will be part of the computer build. What cover are you referring to? The front bearing retainer on the pump, or the gearcase on the engine?

Quote:
Originally Posted by Rx7man View Post
One thing I just noticed that is important is that the FSS you pointed out is 24V, and if there are any internal electronics, they may be 24V as well... that includes that actuating mechinism.. which may cause you some (additional) grief.
There's a bunch of stuff stamped into that solenoid, I'm not gonna run out and look at it right now but I want to say it says something like 010-24V. I came away with the impression that it was rated for both 12v and 24v systems. Even if it was spec'd for 24v, it may still work fine on 12v if the internals are sufficiently robust. It would just draw twice the amperage. I have seen other solenoids set up like this so it wouldn't surprise me.

I got bored and took the EDC governor apart while I waited for the H1000 to show up, and the rack servo in that one definitely worked on 12v. If the H's servos turn out to be 24v, it will add some undesired complexity to the power supply and I'll have to come up with a plan B for the servo control board itself. It would still be very doable, and it wouldn't effect most of the rest of the computer (henceforth referred to as the Awesome Control Module or ACM). Determining voltage/current requirements for each servo will be the first task when the pump goes on the stand.

Quote:
Originally Posted by MuckFarmer View Post
This looks super interesting! What is the original application for the H pump?
I just the other day found out one for the US market. There is a Komatsu engine used in their big iron called a 12v140. It's a 30L V12 engine, and it uses one 6-cylinder H1000 to feed each bank. I know this engine came in WA800 loaders but it likely came in other stuff. I can't give you a firm year range, but I found some Bosch literature from the late '80s/early '90s that referred to the H as a prototype. I would guess it went into mainstream production in the mid '90s and may have been kept in use until Tier 2 happened in '04. This may partially explain why the Dodges weren't originally spec'd for them. Perhaps they weren't ready for the 1994 model year, then by 1998.5 the emissions requirements changed and it was easier to go to the VP44. Also, cost. The bean-counters always win and a P would have been way cheaper than an H. The tag on my pump matches the tag I saw from this 12v140 application. Bear in mind there is probably a right-side and a left-side pump. I would not want to try to fit a right-side pump on the left side of a 6BT.

These are also used in Scania trucks over in Europe. A lot of those were 8-cylinder versions, but either way it doesn't help us much.

'95 2500 ECLB 4x4, 321k and counting.
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Last edited by dauntless89; 02-09-2017 at 06:49 AM.
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post #11 of 166 (permalink) Old 02-09-2017, 08:10 AM
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Very glad to see someone else actually give this a go. Connor clued me in a couple weeks ago.

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post #12 of 166 (permalink) Old 02-09-2017, 09:32 AM
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Good info! I can see why they're hard to find. Probably super expensive too unless you get lucky and find one laying around.
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